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علوم

هل خارطة العالم صحيحة ؟

هل خارطة العالم صحيحة ؟ :

في هذا المقال سنتناول موضوع خريطة الكرة الأرضية أو خريطة العالم التي نستعملها بشكل يومي في الملاحة و في دراسة الجغرافيا و غيرها من المجالات …

هل تعلم عزيزي القارئ أن جزيرة غرينلاند الدنماركية التي تقدر مساحتها ب2,166 مليون كم مربع موجودة على الخريطة بنفس حجم القارة الإفريقية التي تتجاوز مساحتها 30 مليون كم مربع يعني اكبر من غرينلاند بقرابة الخمس عشرة مرة ؟

اسقاط مركاتور

اسقاط مركاتور

هل هذا يعني أن الخريطة خاطئة ؟ أم أن هناك تفسيرا لذلك ؟

هل خارطة العالم صحيحة ؟

الكثيرون ممن يدعون أن الأرض مسطحة و غيرهم يستعملون هذه الحجة كدليل على صحة مايعتقدون … لكن لا تخف عزيزي المشاهد فالخريطة رسمت بطريقة صحيحة و لم تذهب دراستك و معلوماتك هباءا …

أولا لا بد  من معرفة بعض الحقائق لتسهيل الامور :
الارض كروية الشكل و ليست مسطحة مثل  الخريطة بمعنى ان الاسكا مثلا اقرب لروسيا واليابان  من المكسيك ولكن لتسهيل الملاحة والاتجاهات للسفن كان لابد أن نجعل هذه الكرة على شكل ورقة او سطح مستوي او مايسمى الخريطة.
ان جعل الكرة الأرضية على سطح مستوى او ورقة هندسي هو أمر مستحيل دون تغير فى الابعاد او الزوايا…ما العمل الان … ؟
هنا جاء دور جيراردوس مركاتور سنة 1569 م الذي قال انا عندى حل يجعل الكرة الأرضية على سطح مستوى دون الخلل بالزوايا والاتجاهات ويسهل للسفن الملاحة. الحل هو عمل إسقاط او projection. وهو ما سمي باسقاط مركاتور.
الإسقاط هو ان تسقط الصورة الحقيقة للكرة الأرضية على سطح مستوي …. للتقريب مثلا “الظل” هو عبارة عن اسقاط صورة غير حقيقة لجسمك على الحائط مثلا …الظل يحافظ على شكل جسمك ولايحافظ على مساحته فإذا كان الجسم قريبا من مصدر الضوء ظهر أكبر وكلما ابتعد عن مصدر الضوء صار صغيرا ….
بنفس طريقة الظل قام ميركاتور باسقاط  القارات و البحار  التي على  الكرة الأرضية على حائط اسطواني  ملامس للارض عند منتصفها(اى عند خط الاستواء)

اسقاط مركاتور

فى منتصف الارض سيكون الرسم دقيقا لأنه ملامس للسطح الاسطواني لكن كل ما ابتعدنا عن المنتصف تكبر الصورة المرسومة بالاسقاط  وهو الشي الذي جعل المناطق القطبية و البعيدة عن المنتصف تكون أكبر و لهذا فغرينلاند و روسيا تظهران اكبر من القارة الأفريقية مثلا …
صحيح أن كل هذه الدول تظهر  بحجم أكبر ولكنها  تحافظ على الشكل والأبعاد والزوايا…و هو الشي الذي نهتم له في الملاحة
فمن غير المنطقى ان تقارن بين مساحات موجودة بالقطبين بمساحات موجودة في منتصف الكرة الأرضية  من خلال عملية  الاسقاط ….  فأنت هنا كأنك تقارن حجم ظل جسمك على الجدار بحجم جسمك  الحقيقى
الخلاصة أن  اسقاط ميركاتور يستخدم فى تحديد الاتجاه والزوايا والاشكال وليس لمقارنه المساحات … و ليومنا هذا فإن أصعب التحديات التي يواجهها الكارتوغرافر (من يرسم الخرائط) هي اسقاط صورة مجسم كروي على سطح مستوي …

الوسوم

وجدي البكوش

مؤسس موقع تاك سبوت. محب للتدوين و خاصة في المجال التقني . أوتاكو و أحب القطط أكثر مالبشر .

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